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Name Institution Global Health Issue: HIV Introduction/ Overview The human immunodeficiency virus was initially diagnosed from the homosexual men society in 1980 in the United States. In the year 2015, approximately 400,000 people had been diagnosed with the disease, while in the world there are about 35 million infected (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). Contributing Factors
- Ignorance about sex is a sign of innocence and purity, while too much knowledge is a sign of immorality (information is power)
- Condoms have pores, thus it is wise to use two or more (not true- effective protection against HIV, STIs and pregnancy)
- Knowing your sero-status means an early death (not true – it is the first step in counseling services, medical intervention, care and support)
- ARVs provide cure for AIDS. (ARVs helps in restoring immune system, reduce the viral load and prolong life)
- People living with HIV/ AIDS do not need to use the condom during sex (re-infection increase the viral load)
- Socio-economic and cultural factors fueling HIV/ AIDS like Premarital sex, sex before marriage, Drugs and substance abuse, lower status accorded to women, especially in Africa, commercial sex for livelihood and poverty/ lack of education and income earning opportunities (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013).
HIV Progresses, Signs and Symptoms
- Asymptomatic stage: During this stage there are no symptoms. The virus can only be detected through clinical test.
- AIDS related complex (ARC) stage: The stage is complex because there are many problems evident at the same time (Laeyendecker, Brookmeyer, & Cousins, 2013). These are as follows: weight loss, high fever, lymphadanapathy (enlargement of the glands)
- AIDS full blown stage: this stage is characterized by frequent opportunistic infections e.g., tuberculosis, fungal infections frequently manifested through the skin and mouth, kapsosi sarcoma (cancer of the blood vessels), especially in the mouth region
Prevention and Control Strategies Prevention involves tackling the most important modes of transmission i.e. prevent sexual transmission, mother to child transmission and blood/ blood products transmission (Laeyendecker, Brookmeyer, & Cousins, 2013).
- The ABCD method of prevention: this method has been advocated for, as the best means of preventing and controlling HIV infections.
A – Abstinence B – Be faithful C – Condom D – Destigmatization
- Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT): there are certain factors that may reduce the risk of transmission from mother to child. These include:
- Taking anti-HIV therapy during pregnancy and delivery e.g., AZT which reduces the viral load
- An elected cesarean section instead of normal delivery
- Prevention of Transmission through Blood and Other Blood Products
- Screening all donated blood especially for transmission.
- Careful handling of blood and blood fluids
Diagnosis The ELISA Test ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay) is a screening test that looks for HIV antibodies in a blood sample taken from a person exposed to HIV risk. Western Blot (WB) Test It reacts to the presence of specific elements of the HIV antibodies, the proteins gpl20, gp4l, and p24. The strips are washed and an anti-human antibody enzyme label introduced. A visible enzyme marker, following this procedure, indicates an HIV-positive result, thus confirming the EL1SA test. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Tests It involves combining a DNA an1e (taken from the suspected HIV infected person), some short strands of DNA (primers), four nucleotides (adenosine, cytosine, guanine, and thyrnine), an enzyme, and a buffer solution (Kiwanuka, Laeyendecker, & Robb, 2008). Medical/ Pharmaceutical/ Nursing Management Strategies
- Clinical management, which includes early diagnosis, rational treatment, and planning for follow up care of HIV related illness
- Nursing care, which includes care to promote and maintain good health, hygiene, and nutrition
- Counseling and psycho social care, which includes reducing stress and anxiety, promoting positive living, and helping individuals to make informed decisions on HIV testing, plan for the future and behavior change
- Voluntary Counseling and Testing Services (VCT), which is a process that involves listening to people talk about their problems and helping them to work out what to do about the problems.
Follow up Care Social support of the victims as well as communal engagement in creating awareness about the epidemic are the best follow up care strategies to implement. Conclusion The impacts of the HIV diseases has been experienced around the globe through human suffering, cultural orientation, demographics, and even politically. There has been awareness to try, sensitize, and educate people about the disease and how they can live positively. References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2013 (2015). HIV surveillance report. Retrieved on Aug. 23, 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/g-l/hiv_surveillance_report_vol_25.pdf Kiwanuka, N., Laeyendecker, O., & Robb, M. (2008).Effect of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) subtype on disease progression in persons from Rakai, Uganda, with incident HIV-1 infection. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 197(5), 707-13 Laeyendecker, O., Brookmeyer, R., & Cousins, M. (2013).HIV incidence determination in the United States: a multiassay approach. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 207 (5), 232