Cardiovascular Disease Sample

Cardiovascular Disease Name Institution Date



This article aims to introduce the notion of cardiovascular disease, describe the factors that influence its development and general ways of its prevention. The study consists of five parts. The first section is the introduction, where general information about the papers is presented. The second section provides the readers with a broad look back at the cardiovascular disease issue. Afterward, goes a part that describes the reasons that affect cardiovascular disease. The next part appeals to the ways to prevent and manage this disease. The last section is a reference list that includes information about the sources used in the process of writing the paper.

According to the American Heart Association, cardiovascular disease consists of numerous complications that involve the heart and the various blood vessels essential in the transportation of blood to the heart. The other term applicable for this condition is heart disease in which the disease tends to affect the cardiovascular system. The most common causes of the illness are atherosclerosis and hypertension (Cardwell & Flanagan, 2005). Research findings have indicated that cardiovascular diseases have been the leading causes of deaths in developing and in low-income economies from the 1970s. This has attracted the interest of policymakers and health officials among others (Jamison, Breman & Measham, 2006). Further, this disease has drawn the concern of many because the mortality rate influenced by this disease is high among the young population. This means that economies are losing an energetic workforce to this epidemic.

In recent years, policy developers and stakeholders in the health sector have shifted their concentration from treatment as they began to advocate for preventive measures as a way of addressing this global challenge. The intervention strategies include the promotion of people having healthy lifestyles through regular body exercises, and advising those that smoke to quit as a way of preventing the onset of CVD (cardiovascular disease) (Rippe, 2013). The other preventive measure used in addressing CVD is the advocacy of the benefits of eating healthier as the research has shown that this disease can occur as a result of poor diets. Other risk factors indicated by Hesson and Olpin (2013) that may increase the chances for the onset of cardiovascular diseases are diabetes, excessive drinking of alcohol, obesity, stress, and depression, air pollution, lack of sleep among a list of several other factors.

As a recommendation, policymakers and stakeholders should make it a mandatory practice for people to exercise, especially for pupils rather than being a matter of choice as a preventive measure. Presently, most people do not exercise regularly while they also indulge in a massive intake of unhealthy and greasy foods, which increases their chances of developing cardiovascular disease, hence making it pertinent for a forceful intervention in schools and colleges for people to develop the exercising habit.

Description of cardiovascular disease from the literature

In chapter 13 of Remington, Rocc and Wegner book, Newschaffer, Longjian and Sim (2010) give a comprehensive definition of cardiovascular disease as they indicate that cardiovascular disease is a wide range of diseases that may result from heart and blood vessel complications. The disease range includes stroke, peripheral artery disease, and coronary heart disease. It should be noted that the authors focus on the stats of the USA rather than general worldwide population. Other than that, Newschaffer, Liu, and Sim assert that CVD is among the leading causes of disability in the USA as much as it also contributes to the death rate of the same population. The chapter seems to agree with other scholars that communicate the possible causes of CVD, which are smoking, poor dietary uptake, and the lack of physical exercises. However, the focus of this literature is on the fact that this disease is a killer among the poverty-stricken, those that have low education levels and the racial minorities meaning that it creates a stereotype among these people within a population.

It`s essential to indicate that those in the middle class also tend to be affected by this disease as illustrated by other scholars who suggest that those, who do not take good care of their bodies irrespective of the social class that they belong to, are affected by the disease. On the contrary, this chapter gives confusing information regarding the mortality rates caused by CVD by suggesting that the percentage has been on a declining trend, which is not the case. Research has indicated that the death rates as a result of CVD have become an increasing trend because of the lifestyle changes that the world has been experiencing over the years. According to research, a majority of those affected by cardiovascular disease tends to be the younger population, which is contrary to what Newschaffer, Liu, and Sim communicate. These authors suggest that the prevalence of CVD is high among the elderly population as compared to the younger generation, which goes against the documented facts over the same issue.

Pathophysiology from the point of view of literature

The description given of the causes of cardiovascular disease is that the narrowing of the blood vessels that help in the flow of the same as a result of deposition of fats leads to the occurrence of atherosclerosis that in turn causes CVD (Labarthe, 2011). The implication of this is that cardiovascular disease results in decreased blood flow, which is likely to influence the clotting of blood that in turn causes the occurrence of CVD. The other contradicting information provided in the chapter is that CVD initiates at an early age, but the clinical manifestation occurs during the later stages of an individual’s life, which can be at the age of forty. Cook and Langton (2009) state that this is not the case because the occurrence of this disease is at a young age and not in the later stages of an individual’s life as indicated by other comprehensive researches.

Additionally, these authors also suggest that cardiovascular diseases may yet result from high blood pressure or hypertension as much as it may be caused by high cholesterol levels, which is the case because of CVD and high blood pressure (Watson & Preedy, 2004). The truth presented in the article is that the prevalence of CVD is high among women as compared to men (Ballantyne, 2008). However, it is highlighted in the chapter that the influence on the onset of the disease on the same gender isn`t correct when they turn 40 years old. Additionally, the chapter intimates that both primary and secondary prevention is the key to reducing early occurrences of CVD at both the individual and population levels.

Ways to prevent and manage cardiovascular disease

Many researches and other scholars have been working on the issue of communicating the effective ways of prevention and management of cardiovascular disease in the cases when its development is unavoidable. The key lies in minimizing the risk factors that catalyze the onset of CVD and also focusing on some extra factors such as family history of an individual as a preventive measure. Therefore, the most efficient way of managing CVD is by reducing the risks that may influence its onset. For instance, if a person has changed his/ her lifestyle dramatically, an individual has to watch his/her cholesterol level (Brannon & Feist, 2010). This is because the higher the levels are, the higher the chances of the occurrence of CVD prove to be. It means that an individual has to invest in the uptake of food that is low in this component. The young population also should take up an active way of living that should include regular or moderate exercising as a way of controlling their cholesterol.

A healthy weight or body mass index is also essential in prevention and management of CVD as having excessive weight strains the heart and also worsens other risk factors such as diabetes. Stress and anger management can also be relevant in this process through the learning of relaxation techniques that can help in the reduction of the occurrence of stroke and heart attack in young people. By doing so, youngsters, who tend to be at high risk of developing CVD will be able to reduce the occurrence of this disease by a substantive margin. This can also be applicable to those who have CVD. Such people can engage in moderate CVD to keep being healthy. In the end, this lifestyle can cure the disease under the condition that the global population takes up the responsibility of being healthy by adopting a healthy way of living.

As we can see, cardiovascular disease is a blood and vessel disease which can be prevented if a person has a healthy lifestyle. This type of disease can be caused by harmful habits, family history and so on. Every human has to make sure he/ she is not predisposed to having this illness and maintain robust, active life.


Ballantyne, C. M. (2008). Clinical Lipidology: A Companion to Brauwald’s Heart Disease: Expert Consult. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Brannon, L., & Feist, J. (2010). Health psychology: An introduction to behaviour and health. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Cardwell, M., & Flanagan, C. (2005). Psychology AS: The complete companion. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

Cook, K. & Langton, H. (2009). Cardiothoracic Care for Children and Young People: A Multidisciplinary Approach. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Press.

Jamison, D. T. Et al. (2006). Diseases Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Washington DC: World Bank Publications.

Labarthe, D. (2011). Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular diseases: A global challenge. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Olpin, M., & Hesson, M. (2013). Stress management for life: A research-based, experiential approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Remington, P. L., Brownson, R. C., Wegner, M. V., & American Public Health Association. (2010). Chronic disease epidemiology and control. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

Rippe, J. M. (2013). Lifestyle Medicine, Second Edition. Florida: CRC Press.

Watson R. R. & Preedy, V. R. (2004). Nutrition and Heart Disease: Causation and Prevention. Florida: CRC Press.