Breast Cancer – Sample



There are various types of breast cancer and cyst. Additionally, these malformations may be described as in situ or invasive. In situ breast cancer refers to those that are contained while invasive breast cancer can spread to other distant body organs. This paper will discuss the possibility of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) becoming invasive at its progressed stages.

An article from Elsevier (2012) states that DCIS is an antecedent to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) if the condition remains untreated. DCIS is found approximately in 45% of patients with IDC (Elsevier, 2012). According to Boghaert, Radisky, & Nelson (2014), DCIS is a multifarious cluster of benign abrasions of the mammary glands, resultant from the irregular propagation of the epithelial cells of the breast. DCIS, according to pathologists, is characterized using four tissue morphologies. These four morphologies include comedo, cribriform, micropapillary and solid (Boghaert, Radisky, & Nelson, 2014, p. e1003997). It is important to note that these four morphologies are dictated by the comparative rate of cell propagation and cell death. Nevertheless, the primary process that extricates the development and evolution of these morphologies is yet to be understood. Boghaert, Radisky, & Nelson (2014) contend that the natural evolution between these morphologies in vivo is difficult to comprehend as lesions are removed immediately they are detected. Nevertheless, their study suggests evolutions between these morphologies dictate the advancement of breast cancer (Boghaert, Radisky, & Nelson, 2014).

Breast cancer is a multifaceted condition affecting women the world all over. DCIS, a heterogeneous cluster of lesions, begins as a non-malignant tumor but can easily progress if the individual does not seek medical attention. Additionally, the natural development of DCIS to IDC is yet to be understood as the lesions are immediately removed once detected.


Boghaert, E., Radisky, D. C., & Nelson, C. M. (2014). Lattice-Based Model of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Suggests Rules for Breast Cancer Progression to an Invasive State. PLOS Computational Biology, 10(12), e1003997.

Elsevier. (2012, October 16). Study sheds new light on the progression and invasiveness of ductal breast cancer. Retrieved August 23, 2016, from ScienceDaily: