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Bilateral Breast Cancer and its Prognosis
Breast cancer, a condition, where cells form a tumor is common in both men and women. While the tumor may be felt on one breast, the mutant cells metastasize and occasionally infect the other breast. This forms a type of cancer that is known as bilateral breast cancer. Even though the causes of both unilateral and bilateral breast cancers are more or less the same, the risk factor strongly linked to the latter is familial or genetic. As of the year 2006, bilateral breast cancer had a high incidence rate of between 4-20% (Gong et al. 2007). Considering that there has been an increase in the prevalence f all forms of cancer in the present years, Gong et al., envisage that this number is more than likely to increase.
An analysis of the previous occurrences in cancers indicates that the prognosis of bilateral breast cancer is worse as compared to the unilateral one. Researchers delved into the analysis of the reason behind this occurrence and they revealed that genetics has a big role to play (Brown et al.; Gong et al., 2007). A genomic hybridization method known as cDNA microarray was used in the analysis of cancerous tumors. Through this method, researchers concluded that there is a high rate of cloning of metachronous cancerous cells in DNA (Brown et al., 2007). The metachronous cancerous cells are the common causes of bilateral breast cancer.
A unique aspect about bilateral breast cancer is that it gets embedded in the phenotype making it almost impossible to eliminate. As a result, it keeps recurring in families and it is difficult to eliminate regardless of early medication. Gong et al., (2007) performed an analysis of 4702 patients who were already diagnosed with bilateral breast cancer. The researchers confirmed that it is almost impossible to eliminate the trait from the genes and thus it keeps recurring.
Brown, L. M., Chen, B. E., Pfeiffer, R. M., Schairer, C., Hall, P., Storm, H., Pukkala, E., Langmark, F., Kaijser, M., Anderson, M., Joensuu, H., Fossa, S. D., & Travis, L. B. (2007). Risk of second non-hematological malignancies among 376,825 breast cancer survivors. Breast Cancer Restorative Treatment, 106, 439-451.
Gong, J. S., Rha, Y. S., Jeung, C. H., Roh, K. J., Yang, I. W., & Chung, C. H. (2007). Bilateral breats cancer: differential diagnosis using histological and biological parameters. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 37(7), 487-492.